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Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a tropical tree native to the Pacific Islands, widely cultivated for its nutritious and versatile fruit. With a rich history and cultural significance, breadfruit has been a staple food for centuries, providing sustenance for millions of people around the world.


The name “breadfruit” is derived from the fruit’s starchy, bread-like interior. In Hawaiian, it’s called “ulu,” while in other Pacific Island languages, it’s known as “kuru” or “mei.”


Breadfruit is a large, deciduous tree, growing up to 26 meters tall, with a broad, spreading canopy. Its leaves are large, oval-shaped, and dark green, with a soft, hairy texture. The fruit is a syncarp, formed from multiple ovaries, with a green, yellow, or purple skin, and a soft, creamy interior.

Taxonomy and Cultivars

Breadfruit belongs to the mulberry family (Moraceae). There are over 100 cultivars, varying in fruit size, shape, color, and flavor. Some popular cultivars include:

‘UluLarge, oval fruit with a soft, creamy interior
‘MauiSmall to medium, yellow fruit with a sweet, nutty flavor
‘Puerto RicoLarge, round fruit with a firm, starchy interior

Distribution and Habitat

Native to the Pacific Islands, breadfruit is now widely cultivated in tropical regions around the world, including the Caribbean, Central and South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. It thrives in warm, humid environments with well-drained soil.


Breadfruit is typically grown from seed or propagated using cuttings. It requires minimal care, making it an ideal crop for small-scale farmers and backyard gardeners. Regular pruning and fertilization promote healthy growth and fruit production.

Production and Uses

Breadfruit is a versatile fruit, used in various ways:

FoodCooked, roasted, or fried, it’s a staple in many tropical cuisines
FlourDried and ground into a gluten-free flour for baking
Animal feedUsed as a nutritious feed for livestock and poultry
MedicineTraditional remedies for various ailments, including fever and rheumatism


Breadfruit contains various bioactive compounds, including:

  • Flavonoids
  • Phenolic acids
  • Saponins
  • Steroids
  • Triterpenoids


Breadfruit’s flavor is often described as:

  • Sweet and nutty
  • Starchy and potato-like
  • Tropical and slightly musky


Breadfruit contains a toxic compound called calcium oxalate, which can cause oral and gastrointestinal irritation. However, this is neutralized by cooking or processing.


Breadfruit is a nutrient-rich food, providing:

  • High-quality protein
  • Complex carbohydrates
  • Fiber
  • Vitamins A and C
  • Minerals like potassium and magnesium


Breadfruit holds significant cultural and spiritual importance in many Pacific Island communities, featuring in traditional ceremonies, stories, and art. It’s a symbol of abundance, fertility, and hospitality.

In conclusion, breadfruit is a remarkable tropical treasure, offering a wealth of benefits for food security, nutrition, and cultural heritage. Its versatility, adaptability, and nutritional value make it an ideal crop for sustainable agriculture and community development.


  • “Breadfruit is a gift from the gods, providing sustenance and nourishment for our people.” – Hawaiian proverb
  • “The breadfruit tree is a symbol of our connection to the land and our ancestors.” – Pacific Island elder


NutrientAmount (per 100g)
Energy450 kJ
Protein1.5 g
Fat0.5 g
Carbohydrates30 g
Fiber2 g
Vitamin A10% DV
Vitamin C20% DV
Potassium15% DV
Magnesium10% DV

Traditional Uses

Breadfruit has been used for centuries in traditional medicine, crafts, and rituals. The fruit, leaves, and seeds are used to treat various ailments, including:

  • Fever
  • Rheumatism
  • Skin conditions
  • Respiratory issues

Modern Applications

Breadfruit’s unique properties make it an ideal crop for:

  • Biofuel production
  • Animal feed
  • Cosmetics
  • Pharmaceuticals

Challenges and Opportunities

Despite its potential, breadfruit faces challenges such as:

  • Limited market demand
  • High labor costs
  • Disease susceptibility

However, initiatives like:

  • Breeding programs
  • Value-added products
  • Marketing campaigns

can help overcome these challenges and unlock breadfruit’s full potential.


Breadfruit is a tropical treasure, offering a wealth of benefits for food security, nutrition, and cultural heritage. Its versatility, adaptability, and nutritional value make it an ideal crop for sustainable agriculture and community development. By embracing breadfruit’s potential, we can promote a healthier, more sustainable future for generations to come.


Fun Facts

  • Breadfruit can grow up to 3 feet in diameter!
  • It’s a natural remedy for mosquito bites and sunburn.
  • Breadfruit trees can live for over 100 years.


Breadfruit Fritters


  • 2 cups breadfruit, diced
  • 1/2 cup all-purpose flour
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 1/4 teaspoon black pepper
  • 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg
  • 1/4 cup coconut milk
  • Vegetable oil for frying


  1. Mix breadfruit, flour, salt, pepper, and nutmeg.
  2. Add coconut milk and mix until a thick batter forms.
  3. Fry in hot oil until golden brown.
  4. Serve hot and enjoy!