What Is Hemophilia

What is Hemophilia?

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Hemophilia is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body’s ability to control bleeding and blood clotting. People with hemophilia have a deficiency or malfunction of specific proteins called clotting factors, which are needed for the blood to clot properly. This can lead to spontaneous bleeding, prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery, and an increased risk of bleeding into joints and muscles.

What are the Types of Hemophilia?

There are two main types of hemophilia: hemophilia A and hemophilia B. Hemophilia A, also known as classic hemophilia, is caused by a deficiency of clotting factor VIII (FVIII). Hemophilia B, also known as Christmas disease, is caused by a lack of clotting factor IX (FIX). Both types of hemophilia are inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern, which means that the deficiency or dysfunction of the clotting factor gene is located on the X chromosome and is passed from mother to son.

Hemophilia is a rare disorder, with an estimated prevalence of about 1 in 5,000 to 10,000 males. However, it can occur in females as well, although this is much less common. The severity of hemophilia can vary widely, with some people having mild symptoms and others experiencing severe bleeding episodes.

What are the Symptoms of Hemophilia?

Symptoms of hemophilia may include:

Bleeding into joints and muscles, which can cause swelling, pain, and limited movement
Prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery
Spontaneous bleeding, such as nosebleeds or bleeding gums
Heavy menstrual periods in females
Blood in urine or stool

What is the Diagnosis of Hemophilia?

Diagnosis of hemophilia is typically made through a combination of a physical examination, family medical history, and laboratory tests to measure the levels of clotting factors in the blood. Treatment of hemophilia typically involves replacement therapy with the missing clotting factor, either through regular infusions or self-administered injections. In some cases, gene therapy may also be an option.


Living with hemophilia can be challenging, as it requires careful management to prevent bleeding episodes and avoid complications. This may involve avoiding certain activities that could cause injury, such as contact sports, and seeking medical attention promptly if a bleeding episode does occur. People with hemophilia can lead full and active lives with proper treatment and management.