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Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with a sweet and tangy fruit that has become a symbol of hospitality and warmth. Native to South America, pineapple has been cultivated for centuries and is now grown in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world. This article will delve into the etymology, description, taxonomy, cultivars, distribution, cultivation, production, uses, phytochemistry, flavor, toxicity, nutrition, and cultural significance of pineapple.


The name “pineapple” is a misnomer, as the fruit is not related to pine or apple trees. The term “pineapple” was first used in 1664 by European explorers, who thought the fruit resembled a pine cone. The scientific name “Ananas comosus” comes from the Tupi language, in which “ananas” means “excellent fruit” and “comosus” means “tufted” or “crested”.


Pineapple is a herbaceous perennial plant that grows up to 6 feet tall. Its tough, waxy leaves are long and narrow, with sharp spines along the edges. The plant produces a single stem with a crown of leaves at the top, which bears a single fruit. The fruit is a composite of many tiny flowers, each with its own eye and scale. The tough, prickly skin is usually yellow or golden, while the juicy flesh is sweet and tangy.

Taxonomy and Cultivars

Pineapple belongs to the family Bromeliaceae and is classified into several cultivars, including:

‘Smooth Cayenne’Most widely cultivated variety, known for its sweet and tangy flavor
‘Red Spanish’Has a reddish-purple skin and a sweeter flavor than ‘Smooth Cayyne’
‘Kaua’i Sugarloaf’A compact variety with a sweet and juicy flavor
‘Phuket’A Thai variety with a sweet and slightly spicy flavor

Distribution and Habitat

Pineapple is native to South America, specifically the Amazon region. It is now cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions, including:

Southeast AsiaThailand, Philippines, Indonesia
Central AmericaCosta Rica, Brazil, Mexico
AfricaSouth Africa, Nigeria, Egypt
Pacific IslandsHawaii, Fiji, Tonga


Pineapple is usually grown from crowns or suckers, which are planted in well-draining soil with full sun to partial shade. The plant requires:

Temperature64°F to 90°F (18°C to 32°C)
WaterConsistent moisture, but not waterlogged
SoilWell-draining acidic soil with pH 5.5-6.5

Production and Uses

Pineapple is a major crop in many countries, with global production exceeding 24 million tons in 2020. It is used:

Fresh fruitEaten fresh or used in salads, smoothies, and desserts
CanningPreserved in syrup or juice for long-term storage
JuiceFresh or concentrated juice is a popular beverage
CookingUsed in savory dishes, such as Hawaiian-style barbecue


Pineapple contains various bioactive compounds, including:

BromelainA proteolytic enzyme with anti-inflammatory properties
Vitamin CAn antioxidant essential for immune function and collagen production
ManganeseA mineral involved in enzyme function and antioxidant defenses


Pineapple’s unique flavor is due to the combination of sugars, acids, and volatile compounds. The flavor profile includes:

SweetDue to high sugar content
TangyDue to malic and citric acids
TropicalDue to volatile compounds like terpenes and esters


Pineapple contains a proteolytic enzyme called bromelain, which can cause:

Allergic reactionsSome individuals may experience an allergic response
Digestive issuesBromelain can irritate the digestive tract in large quantities


Pineapple is a nutrient-rich fruit, providing:

Vitamin CBoosts immune function and collagen production
ManganeseEssential for enzyme function and antioxidant defenses
FiberSupports healthy digestion and satiety


Pineapple has significant cultural and symbolic meanings, including:


Pineapple has significant cultural and symbolic meanings, including:

HospitalityPineapple is a symbol of welcome and hospitality in many cultures
WealthIn the 17th century, pineapple was a rare and expensive fruit, symbolizing wealth and status
FriendshipPineapple is often given as a gift to represent friendship and appreciation
SpiritualIn some cultures, pineapple is believed to have spiritual significance, representing protection and good fortune


  • “The pineapple is a symbol of warmth, welcome, and friendship.” – Unknown
  • “Pineapple is not just a fruit, it’s a symbol of hospitality and love.” – Hawaiian proverb
  • “The pineapple is a fruit of the gods, and it’s a symbol of our connection to nature.” – Tropical island saying


Pineapple is a fascinating fruit with a rich history, cultural significance, and nutritional benefits. From its prickly exterior to its sweet and tangy interior, pineapple is a tropical treasure that has captured the hearts of people around the world. Whether you enjoy it fresh, canned, or juiced, pineapple is a delicious and versatile fruit that’s here to stay.


NutrientAmount (per 100g)
Energy51 kcal
Carbohydrates13.1 g
Fiber1.4 g
Sugar9.2 g
Protein0.5 g
Fat0.1 g
Vitamin C131% DV
Manganese76% DV
Production (2020)CountryTons
1Costa Rica2,931,811